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Female cat reproductive system: anatomy and physiology
Feline reproduction includes the physical, genetic, and behavioral aspects of the life cycle of cats. In general, reproduction in cats occurs in a cyclical fashion, beginning with estrus, which may occur once or twice a year in individual females. A pregnant female cat may experience pregnancy at any age, but the time to first ovulation generally is between 8 and 15 months of age. The gestation period ranges from 65 to 105 days, however, there is great variability in this period. If a female is neutered before this time, she will likely not be able to ovulate for the remainder of her life. In the third week of pregnancy, a cat will produce a cervical mucus plug. It is usually expelled at the time of birth. However, females with an intact prepuberal vagina may not have a cervical mucus plug, and kittens may be born vaginally at or after the full time of gestation.
Males mature at puberty.
The reproductive anatomy of female cats are somewhat different from that of human females. The ovaries are paired structures in the abdomen, located on either side of the uterus. The ovaries are suspended in the pelvic cavity by the mesovarium and the mesovarium. During ovulation, the walls of the ovaries become thin, allowing the eggs to escape into the uterine lumen. The uterus in a female cat is part of the genitourinary system and, as with other mammals, it has a cervical canal and cervix. The upper end of the uterus of female cats is slightly pointed. Uterine glands are found throughout the muscle walls and are surrounded by a lumen. The uterine opening is covered by a simple columnar epithelium.
Female cats do not have a uterus that is part of the alimentary tract and nor does it perform the function of secreting milk for the offspring.
The female cat has a vagina that is connected to the perineal body by a cylindrical structure known as the vulva. There are two uterine cornua, which meet the perineum and form the introitus. The perineal body contains the vestibular bulbs, vestibule, vestibular glands, and vestibular glands. The perineum is folded to form the ano-rectal area, which is lined with stratified squamous epithelium and is drained by a number of openings.
The male cats are anatomically similar to female cats. The testes are descended in the scrotum. The seminal vesicles are located on the dorsal wall of the abdomen.
The penis is the male cat's organ of reproduction. It is soft and hairless and has an internal and external sheath. The distal part of the internal sheath is composed of erectile tissue and supports the tip of the penis. The erectile tissue is under muscular control. The erectile tissue extends from the urethral opening at the end of the urethra to the penis.
Vaginal, vestibular, vestibular, and utricular glands are present in the vagina, the uterine cornua, and the perineal body.
Dietary requirements are similar for all felids, except the domestic cat. The daily dietary requirements are:
A felid will have to eat more food than the daily requirements to provide the additional energy needed to support a large body weight and maintain a healthy lifestyle. Felids will eat 3 to 4 times the daily requirements.
Felids are carnivorous animals that depend on fresh meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and raw vegetables for proper nutrition. In addition to the nutrients they require for good health, adult felids require certain nutrients which enable them to reproduce, the most important of these being copper, calcium, and phosphorus.
When an adult cat eats her weight in protein each day, she will still experience weight gain. If she eats her weight in carbohydrates daily, she will still grow. However, the cat will maintain a normal weight. If the cat eats her weight in fat each day, she will likely experience weight gain. Depending on the type of fat she is eating, the cat will gain, lose, or maintain a normal amount of weight. If she eats her weight in carbs, the cat will maintain a normal weight.
The average cat is in a state of negative energy balance when her calorie intake is less than her calorie needs. A cat that is in a negative energy balance will use her stores of fat, which includes muscle, to convert to energy. This causes the cat to gain weight. The cat will stop eating and begin to lose weight when she reaches a positive energy balance. When a cat has a positive energy balance, her body is able to use its fat stores, which includes muscle, to generate energy. If she reaches a positive energy balance, the cat will no longer gain weight. This allows her to maintain her current weight or lose weight if she was overweight.
Because cats store fat, they require more vitamins and minerals than dogs. The vitamins needed include thiamine, niacin, and pantothenic acid, while the minerals needed include copper, calcium, and phosphorus.
Cats are omnivores that have the ability to survive on a vegetarian diet and are naturally physically active. Most of their movement occurs while they are hunting prey or sleeping. Cats use their muscular system to move while they sleep. When the cat is awake, they use their muscular system to run, jump, climb, balance, and move. Felids in the wild can use their front and hind legs, back, and tail to perform these physical activities. In captivity, cats can walk on a treadmill, run on a wheeled device, and use their front and hind limbs in a variety of ways to jump, balance, and climb. Cats love to play and use their legs to chase and wrestle with their toys.
The type of exercise a cat needs depends on what she is being bred for. If a cat is for show, she may perform in a variety of cat shows such as jumping, jumping broad jump, agility, and conformation. If a cat is for hunting, she may need to perform in events such as hunt point and point to point. If a cat is for breeding, she may need to perform in events such as cattery champion, cattery agility champion, cattery hunting champion, and cattery working champion. Many cats compete in two types of events. One is open class and the other is closed class. Open class cats are allowed to compete in both types. Closed class cats are allowed to only compete in one of the two.
Most cats that are bred for sports require more exercise than cats that are not being bred for sports. This is because athletes have to run, jump, balance, and run farther distances than cats who are not bred for sports. If a cat is being used for breeding, her owner may also have to run, jump, balance, and run longer distances. If an athlete does not exercise her muscles, she may get injuries. Many people think that cats can exercise themselves all day. This is not true. Many owners keep cats that are for show inside all day. They will still need exercise. Many owners keep their cats indoors for this reason. There are indoor cats and outdoor cats. Indoor cats are kept inside and stay outside for less than an hour per day. Outdoor cats can be in different environments depending on where they live. For example, some cats are kept outside in the country